Background: Surgical treatment for mycotic aortic aneurysms is not optimal. Even with a large excision, extensive debridement, in situ or extra-anatomical reconstruction, and with or without lifelong antibiotic treatment, mycotic aneurysms still carry very high mortality and morbidity. The use of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) for mycotic aortic aneurysms simplifies the procedure and provides a good alternative for this critical condition. However, the question remains: if EVAR is placed in an infected bed, what is the outcome of the infection? Does it heal, become aggravated, or even cause a disastrous aortic rupture? In this study, we tried to clarify the risk factors for such an adverse response. Methods: A literature review was undertaken by using MEDLINE. All relevant reports on endoluminal management of mycotic aortic aneurysms were included. Logistic regressions were applied to identify predictors of persistent infection. Results: A total of 48 cases from 22 reports were included. The life-table analysis showed that the 30-day survival rate was 89.6% ± 4.4%, and the 2-year survival rate was 82.2% ± 5.8%. By univariate analysis, age 65 years or older, rupture of the aneurysm (including those with aortoenteric fistula and aortobronchial fistula), and fever at the time of operation were identified as significant predictors of persistent infection, and preoperative use of antibiotics for longer than 1 week and an adjunct procedure combined with EVAR were identified as significant protective factors for persistent infection. However, by multivariate logistic regression analysis, the only significant independent predictors identified were rupture of aneurysm and fever. Conclusions: EVAR seems a possible alternative method for treating mycotic aortic aneurysms. Identification of the risk factors for persistent infection may help to decrease surgical morbidity and mortality. EVAR could be used as a temporary measure; however, a definite surgical treatment should be considered for patients present with aneurysm rupture or fever.
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