Objective: Air pollution is associated with the prevalence of respiratory diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the impacts of outdoor air pollutants and indoor Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus 1 (Der p 1) exposure on levels of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH, and pulmonary function in atopic children. Methods: This study recruited 59 atopic mild-to-moderate asthmatic children and 23 atopic non-asthmatic children. Data on personal characteristics, FeNO, EBC pH, and pulmonary function were collected. Group 1 allergens of Der p 1 were measured on the tops of mattresses and on bedroom floors in the children’s homes, and outdoor air pollutant concentrations were estimated from air quality monitoring stations, using the ordinary kriging method. Results: Exposure levels of outdoor air pollutants, except for particulate matter (PM)2.5, for the recruited children met outdoor air quality standards set by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency. The lag effect of outdoor PM10 exposure was negatively associated with the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) [(Lag 1: β=–0.771, p = 0.028), and O3 (Lag 1–7: β=–2.02, p = 0.04, Lag 1–28: β=–3.213, p = 0.029)]. Median pulmonary function parameters differed significantly in forced vital capacity (FVC) (p = 0.004) and FEV1 (p = 0.024) values between atopic asthmatic and non-asthmatic children. No association was found between the FeNO/EBC pH level and exposure to Der p 1 allergen and air pollutants in the recruited children. Conclusions: Outdoor PM10 and O3 exposure was associated with reduction in FEV1 in atopic asthmatic and non-asthmatic children.
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