Aim: Paraneoplastic neurological diseases (PND) are rare, but potentially treatable disorders. Paraneoplastic encephalitis is rapidly emerging as an important but likely under-recognized condition in children. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and spectrum of PND in children with benign ovary tumor and the long-term outcome. Patients and methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all female patients below 18. years of age diagnosed with a benign ovarian tumor proven by pathology between January 1993 and December 2010. All the clinical symptoms developed within 5. years of tumor diagnosis and the related investigations were recorded. Results: There were total 133 children and adolescents with benign ovarian tumors, mostly mature teratoma. Six patients (4.5%) had neuropsychiatric manifestations and all but one were beyond age 10. years. The most common neuropsychiatric presentations were depression or low mood (84%), headache (50%), mutism (50%), hypoventilation (50%), seizures (30%), hallucination (30%), vomiting and hypersalivation (30%). Three patients (2.2%) had serious PND including acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in 1 and anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis in 2. Although all of three improved after tumor removal, one without immunotherapy had neurological sequelae and prolonged ICU stay. Conclusion: The prevalence of PND in benign ovary tumor is not so uncommon in children. It is important to survey ovary tumors in female adolescents with subacute presentation of multiple-level involvement of neuraxis where no clear alternate diagnosis is possible. Treatment of serious PND associated with ovary tumors should include immunotherapy in addition to tumor removal.
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