Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) seems likely to play a key role in the " alternative adaptive immunity" that has been reported in invertebrates. Dscam consists of a cytoplasmic tail that is involved in signal transduction and a hypervariable extracellular region that might use a pathogen recognition mechanism similar to that used by the vertebrate antibodies. In our previous paper, we isolated a unique tail-less form of Dscam from Litopenaeus vannamei. In this study, we report the first membrane-bound form of shrimp Dscam: PmDscam was isolated from Penaeus monodon, and it occurred in both membrane-bound and tail-less forms. Phylogenetic analysis showed that while the crustacean Dscams from shrimp and water flea did not share a single subclade, they were distinct from the invertebrate Dscam-like molecules and from the insecta Dscams. In the extracellular region, the variable regions of PmDscam were located in N-terminal Ig2, N-terminal Ig3 and the entire Ig7 domain. The PmDscam extracellular variants and transmembrane domain variants were produced by mutually exclusive alternative splicing events. The cytoplasmic tail variants were produced by exon inclusion/exclusion. Based on the genomic organization of Daphnia Dscam's cytoplasmic tail, we propose a model of how the shrimp Dscam genomic locus might use Type III polyadenylation to generate both the tail-less and membrane-bound forms.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Chemistry
- Aquatic Science