Summary: A meta-analysis to investigate the difference in fracture risk between individuals with and without HIV infection was performed. People living with HIV had lower bone mineral density (BMD) and greater risks of overall fractures and fragility fractures. Reducing fragility and maintaining skeletal strength for PLWH are urgently needed for this population. Purpose: The introduction of effective antiretroviral therapy increased the life expectancy of people living with HIV (PLWH). This population now faces problems related to aging such as decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture risk. Some antiretroviral therapies may also negatively impact bone health. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the difference in the fracture risk between individuals with and without HIV infection. Methods: We compared BMD, risk of fragility fracture, and risk of all fracture between the two groups. This study included 35 articles with 106,994 PLWH and 228,794,335 controls. Results: PLWH had lower lumbar spine and hip BMD than controls. PLWH had a higher prevalence of all fracture events (4.08% versus 0.44%) and fragility fractures (2.66% versus 2.19%). The relative risks of all and fragility fractures of PLWH were 1.91 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.46–2.49; p < 0.001) and 1.68 (95% CI: 1.40–2.01; p < 0.001). PLWH also had more vertebral fractures (1.26% versus 0.37%; RR, 1.97; 95% CI: 1.22–3.2; p < 0.05), hip fractures (1.38% versus 0.81%; RR, 1.88; 95% CI: 0.99–3.57; p = 0.05), and wrist fractures (1.38% versus 1.29%; RR, 1.67; 95% CI: 1.13–2.45; p < 0.05) than healthy controls. The pooled incidence of fractures was 1.72 per 100 person-years in PLWH and 1.29 in healthy controls. Conclusion: PLWH had lower BMD and greater risks of all fractures and fragility fractures. Reducing fragility and maintaining skeletal strength for PLWH are urgently needed for this population.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes