In the near future, multi-sensor fusion will be the core component to navigate the autonomous driving platforms. This paper proposes new strategies to cope with the integration of an inertial navigation system (INS), a global navigation satellite system (GNSS), and light detection and ranging (LIDAR) to achieve simultaneous localization and mapping (INS/GNSS/LiDAR SLAM) especially in GNSS challenging environments where GNSS signals are blocked or contaminated with reflected signals. The proposed strategies implement a high level of integration with various information received from multiple sensors to collectively compensate for the specific drawbacks of those sensors included in the integrated system. The first strategy is to solve the divergence and drift problems of SLAM using the initial pose information from INS and the proposed refreshing process using an INS/GNSS integrated system. In addition, an updated mechanization is designed to qualify those received measurements based on cross validation of separate types of data. This mechanization is to ensure all measurements are reliable for the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) update process. Moreover, the SLAM-derived information plays a major role to recognize the vehicle movement which assists the system to accurately apply those appropriate vehicle motion constraint models. The preliminary results presented in this study illustrate that proposed algorithm performs superior than the traditional INS/GNSS integration scheme and provides absolute navigation accuracy of 2 meters and 0.6% of distance traveled in GNSS-denied as well as 1.2 meters in GNSS-hostile environments, respectively.
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