This study provides a first attempt from a toxicological perspective to put forward, in general terms and explanations, combined toxic interactions and biostimulation strategy upon nutrient medium to Ralstonia taiwanensis for bioremediation. Dose-response analysis clearly revealed that most of the supplemented nutrients tested (except for gluconic acid) synergistically interact with chronic toxicity to phenol, especially at low doses. Acute toxicity based upon adaptation lag is a more appropriate indicator for comparative analysis of toxicity due to similar toxic ranking at almost all effective concentrations. In addition, comparison upon acute and chronic toxicity for various nutrient media also suggests in parallel that acute toxicity is more significant than chronic toxicity possibly as the result of a more sensitive response of adaptation lag to growth in different media. Feasibility of adding extra nutrient substrates (e.g., phenol, gluconic acid, yeast extract, pyruvic acid, acetic acid, and glycerol) to stimulate proliferation of phenol degraders for better phenol degradation performance was also assessed. The results show that using acetic acid as the augmented nutrient source might be the most feasible biostimulation strategy for phenol degradation.
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