In the present study, the data of the initial adhesion of platelets onto the wall of a flow chamber with an obstacle in steady human blood flows were obtained. The flowfields and the distribution of stress-related factors were simulated numerically by a finite volume method and the fluid dynamic effect on the platelet adhesion is discussed. In addition to the wall shear effect, the normal stress effect was also taken into account. A parameter Vn/|Vt| was devised to assess the combined effect of both shear and normal forces in platelet adhesion. It was found that the peak adhesion occurred next to, but not on, the impingement point on the obstacle where the value of Vn/|Vt| was negative. In these regions, direct impact played a major role in platelet adhesion. On the other hand, near the separation point before the obstacle where Vn/|Vt| was insignificant, the mechanism was believed to be different from that in the direct impact region. Denser adhesion there might be caused by the accumulation and frequent collision of particles due to flow retardation and/or detour of the flow path. Interestingly, relatively low adhesion was found inside the recirculation regions. These results show that the normal stress effect (impingement) should be considered in platelet adhesion in addition to the shear effect.
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