Voiding dysfunction is a common but bothersome problem in both men and women. Urethral sphincter botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) injections could serve as an option in refractory cases. This study analyzed the efficacy and outcome predictors of the injections in patients with functional, non-neurogenic voiding dysfunction. Patients who received urethral sphincter BoNT-A injection for refractory voiding dysfunction due to detrusor underactivity (DU) or urethral sphincter dysfunction were retrospectively reviewed. A successful outcome was defined as a marked improvement as reported in the global response assessment. The study evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of urethral sphincter BoNT-A injections and measured the changes in urodynamic parameters after the procedure in the patients. A total of 181 patients including 138 women and 43 men were included. The overall success rate was 64%. A lower success rate was noted in patients with DU compared to those with urethral sphincter dysfunction in both genders. In the multivariable analysis, recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) and bladder voiding efficiency (BVE) were positive predictors for a successful outcome, while DU was a negative predictor. Urethral sphincter BoNT-A injection is an effective treatment for refractory non-neurogenic voiding dysfunction. Baseline BVE and history of recurrent UTI positively predict a successful outcome. DU is a negative outcome predictor.
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