Background: Our aims were to investigate the treatment and clinicopathological variables in relation to prognosis in small cell neuroendocrine cervical carcinoma (SCNECC). Patients and methods: Clinical data of SCNECC patients with International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages I-IV treated between 1987 and 2009 at member hospitals of the Taiwanese Gynecologic Oncology Group (TGOG) were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Of the 179 eligible patients, 104 were of FIGO stage I, 19 stage IIA, 23 stage IIB, 9 stage III, and 24 stage IV. The median failure-free survival (FFS) was 16.0 months, and the median cancer-specific survival (CSS) was 24.8 months. In multivariate analysis, FIGO stage and lymph node metastasis were selected as independent variables in stages I-IV. In stages IIB-IVB, primary treatment containing etoposide and platinum for at least 5 cycles (EP5+) (n = 16) was associated with significantly better 5-year FFS (42.9% versus 11.8%, p = 0.041) and CSS (45.6% versus 17.1%, p = 0.035) compared to other treatments (n = 40). Furthermore, concurrent chemoradiation with EP5+ (CCRT-EP5+) was associated with even better 5-year FFS (62.5% versus 13.1%, p = 0.025) and CSS (75.0% versus 16.9%, p = 0.016). Conclusions: FIGO stage and lymph node metastasis are significant prognostic factors in SCNECC. In stages IIB-IVB, CCRT-EP5+ might be the treatment of choice, which could be also true for earlier stages. Despite limitations of a retrospective study spanning a long time period and heterogeneous managements, the results provide an important basis for designing future prospective studies.
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