Breeding programs aiming at transferring desirable genes from one species to another through interspecific hybridization and backcrossings often produce monosomic and disomic additions as intermediate crossing products. Such aneuploids contain alien chromosomes added to the complements of the recipient parent and can be used for further introgression programs, but lack of homoeologous recombination and inevitable segregation of the alien chromosome at meiosis make them often less ideal for producing stable introgression lines. Monosomic and disomic additions can have specific morphological characteristics, but more often they need additional confirmation of molecular marker analyses and assessment by fluorescence in situ hybridization with genomic and chromosome-specific DNA as probes. Their specific genetic and cytogenetic properties make them powerful tools for fundamental research elucidating regulation of homoeologous recombination, distribution of chromosome-specific markers and repetitive DNA sequences, and regulation of heterologous gene expression. In this overview we present the major characteristics of such interspecific aneuploids highlighting their advantages and drawbacks for breeding and fundamental research.
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