Background/Purpose: Despite general recommendation of short-course antibiotic prophylaxis, prolonged antibiotic use is still commonly reported in clinical settings. This study compared the efficacy of 1-day versus 3-day antibiotic prophylaxis in preventing surgical site infection (SSI) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). Methods: This prospective, randomized control study was performed in a tertiary-care medical center from June 2002 to April 2004. Patients underwent non-emergency CABG and were randomized into two groups receiving either 1 day or 3 days cefazolin prophylaxis. The SSI rates were compared between the two groups. Results: During the study period, 231 patients were enrolled, 120 in the 1-day group and 111 in the 3-day group. Twenty-two episodes of SSI were observed within 1 month after operation: 13 (10.8%) in the 1-day group and nine (8.1%) in the 3-day group (odds ratio: 1.37; 95% confidence interval: 0.56-3.33; p = 0.48). By logistic regression analysis, 1-day prophylaxis with cefazolin was not associated with higher risk of SSI (adjusted odds ratio: 0.91; 95% confidence interval: 0.32-2.56; p = 0.85). Conclusion: Antibiotic prophylaxis for 1 day in CABG surgery was associated with similar rates of postoperative infection compared with antibiotic prophylaxis of 3 days.
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