The prostaglandin (PG) F2α receptor (FPr) in the corpus luteum is essential for maintaining normal reproductive cyclicity in many species. Activation of this seven-transmembrane spanning receptor at the end of the cycle leads to a decrease in progesterone and the demise of the corpus luteum (luteolysis). Recently, the gene structure of the FPr in three mammalian species has been elucidated; however, promoter regulation of the gene is still poorly understood. The FPr tuRNA is extremely low in steroidogenic follicular cells (theca or granulosa) but is expressed at high levels in the corpus luteum, particularly in the large luteal cells. Treatment with PGF2α decreased FPr mRNA expression in luteal cells in most species that have been studied. Key amino acids have been suggested to be critical for binding of FPr to PGF2α based on three-dimensional modeling and comparisons with other G-protein-coupled receptors. Moieties of the PGF2α molecule that are essential for binding or specificity of binding to the FPr have been identified by radioreceptor binding studies. In this article, recent information is reviewed on the structure of the FPr gene, regulation of luteal FPr mRNA, and receptor/ligand interaction requirements for the FPr protein.
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