Antrodia cinnamomea (AC) is a nutraceutical fungus and studies have suggested that AC has the potential to prevent or alleviate diseases. However, little is known about the AC-induced phenotypes on the intestine-liver axis and gut microbial alterations. Here, we performed two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and MALDI-Biotyper to elaborate the AC-induced phenotypes on the intestine-liver axis and gut microbial distribution of C57BL/6 mice. The experimental outcomes showed that the hepatic density may increase by elevating hepatic redox regulation, lipid degradation and glycolysis-related proteins and alleviating cholesterol biosynthesis and transport-related proteins in C57BL/6 mice with AC treatment. Moreover, AC facilitates intestinal glycolysis, TCA cycle, redox and cytoskeleton regulation-related proteins, but also reduces intestinal vesicle transport-related proteins in C57BL/6 mice. However, the body weight, GTT, daily food/water intake, and fecal/urine weight were unaffected by AC supplementation in C57BL/6 mice. Notably, the C57BL/6-AC mice had a higher gut microbial abundance of Alistipes shahii (AS) than C57BL/6-Ctrl mice. In summary, the AC treatment affects intestinal permeability by regulating redox and cytoskeleton-related proteins and elevates the gut microbial abundance of AS in C57BL/6 mice that might be associated with increasing hepatic density and metabolism-related proteins of the liver in C57BL/6 mice. Our study provides an insight into the mechanisms of AC-induced phenotypes and a comprehensive assessment of AC's nutraceutical effect in C57BL/6 mice.
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