The gut microbiota plays a critical role in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hypertension. Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and trimethylamine (TMA) are gut microbiota-derived metabolites, and both are known uraemic toxins that are implicated in CKD, atherosclerosis, colorectal cancer and cardiovascular risk. Therefore, the detection and quantification of TMAO, which is a metabolite from gut microbes, are important for the diagnosis of diseases such as atherosclerosis, thrombosis and colorectal cancer. In this study, a new “colour-switch” method that is based on the combination of a plasma separation pad/absorption pad and polyallylamine hydrochloride-capped manganese dioxide (PAH@MnO2 ) nanozyme was developed for the direct quantitative detection of TMAO in whole blood without blood sample pretreatment. As a proof of concept, a limit of quantitation (LOQ) of less than 6.7 µM for TMAO was obtained with a wide linear quantification range from 15.6 to 500 µM through quantitative analysis, thereby suggesting potential clinical applications in blood TMAO monitoring for CKD patients.
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