An electrochemical-biosensor (EC-biosensor) microchip consisting of screen-printed electrodes and a double-layer reagent paper detection zone impregnated with amaranth is proposed for the rapid determination of microalbuminuria (MAU) in human urine samples. Under the action of an applied deposition potential, the amaranth is adsorbed on the electrode surface and the subsequent reaction between the modified surface and the MAU content in the urine sample prompts the formation of an inert layer on the electrode surface. The inert layer impedes the transfer of electrons and hence produces a drop in the response peak current, from which the MAU concentration can then be determined. The measurement results obtained for seven artificial urine samples with known MAU concentrations in the range of 0.1–40 mg/dL show that the measured response peak current is related to the MAU concentration with a determination coefficient of R2 = 0.991 in the low concentration range of 0.1–10 mg/dL and R2 = 0.996 in the high concentration range of 10–40 mg/dL. Furthermore, the detection results obtained for 82 actual chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients show an excellent agreement (R2 = 0.988) with the hospital analysis results. Overall, the results confirm that the proposed detection platform provides a convenient and reliable approach for performing sensitive point-of-care testing (POCT) of the MAU content in human urine samples.
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