An integrated system consisting of a paper-based chip and a smart detection device is proposed for determining the human serum creatinine concentration based on Jaffé reaction theory. In the proposed approach, the reaction zone of the paper-based chip is implanted with picric acid and NaOH reagent and dried at 35◦C for 20 min. Human serum creatinine is dripped onto the reaction zone of the chip. A Jaffé reaction is induced by heating the chip at 37◦C for 5 min and the creatinine concentration is then derived by analyzing the RGB (red, green and blue) intensity of the resulting Janovsky complex using self-written analysis software installed on a smartphone. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated using control samples with creatinine concentrations ranging from 0.2~8 mg/dL. The detection results obtained for 32 real-world creatinine samples are shown to be in excellent agreement with those obtained using a standard macroscale method (R2 = 0.9994). Overall, the results show that the proposed system provides a compact, low-cost and reliable approach for human serum creatinine concentration detection.
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