Fuel-like hydrocarbons (also known as biofuel) isolated from the deoxygenation of fatty acids present different advantages as compared with fossil fuels. In particular, the homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic deoxygenation methods have been the center of attention during recent years. Although catalytic deoxygenation of fatty acids via heterogeneous catalysis has been widely investigated, there is a high demand to review the progress in using the homogeneous catalysis pathways. Among the various homogeneous pathways, radical-based reactions and transition metal catalysis demonstrate the most promising results in the decarboxylation and decarbonylation processes. It is shown that radical-based reactions are more active in decarboxylation meanwhile the transition metal catalysts are rather selective to decarbonylation of fatty acids. Besides, the reaction conditions and type of catalysts are capable of enhancing biofuel production. Homogenous catalysis provides the huge potential for commercializing viability of biofuel via deoxygenation of fatty acids.
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