The world energy system faces two major challenges: the requirement for more energy and less carbon. It is important to address biofuels production as an alternative to the usage of fossil fuel by utilizing microalgae as the potential feedstock. Yet, the commercialization of microalgae remains contentious caused by factors relating to the life cycle assessment and feasibility of microalgae-based biofuels. This present review starts with an introduction to the benefits of microalgae, followed by intensive elaboration on microalgae cultivation parameters. Subsequently, the fundamental principle along with the advantages and disadvantages of various pretreatment techniques of microalgae were reviewed. In addition, the conventional and recent advances in lipid extraction techniques from microalgae were comprehensively evaluated. Comparative analysis regard to the gaps from previous studies was discussed point-by-point in each section. The effort presented in this review will provide an insight for future researches dealing with microalgae-biofuel production on downstream processing.
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