It has been shown that ultrasound (US) stimulation accelerates fracture healing in the animal models and in clinical studies. However, the mechanism by which US achieves these outcomes is not clear. Here we investigated the effect of US stimulation on the differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclastogenesis. The effect of different intensities of US stimulation (1 MHz, continuous wave) on the osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1 or primary cultured osteoblasts was examined. Flow cytometry showed that US stimulation at 125 mW/cm2 for 10 min transiently increased the surface expression of α2, α5, and β1 integrins in both MC3T3-E1 and primary osteoblasts. Fluorocytochemistry showed that the actin cytoskeleton also reorganized in response to US stimulation. When the MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured in differentiation medium containing vitamin C and β-glycerophosphate, long-term US stimulation (10 min/day for 11 days) increased mineralized nodule formation, collagen content, and alkaline phosphatase activity. The intensity at 125 mW/cm2 exerts the most prominent action. Effect of long-term US stimulation on the osteoclastogenesis was also examined. US stimulation at a power of 62.5 or 125 mW/cm2 markedly inhibited RANKL plus M-CSF-induced osteoclastic differentiation from bone marrow stromal cells. These findings suggest that US has a regulatory effect on the integrin expression and the differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclastogenesis, which may contribute to the beneficial effects of US on the fracture repair.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes