Melioidosis, an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, an aerobic gram-negative bacillus, is normally transmitted through skin wounds and contact with infected human beings and animals. Its primary source is rice paddy soil and stagnant water. Melioidosis manifesting as an arterial mycotic aneurysm is rare, and, to our knowledge, infected true and false aneurysms of the iliac artery have never been reported. We report the case of a patient without contact with the normal sources of infection in whom an iliac mycotic aneurysm was caused by relapsing melioidosis and treated with an extra-anatomic bypass graft.
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