Modern microflow cytometers are sophisticated instruments capable of measuring multiple physical characteristics of a single cell simultaneously as the cells flow in suspension through a measuring device. Cytometers are the tool of choice for the high-speed acquisition and analysis of large single cell populations. However, traditional devices lack the ability to provide intracellular spatial information. In the past few decades, various flow cytometer systems with the ability to combine cell/particle detection and the acquisition of two or three-dimensional spatial information have been proposed. However, these devices suffer a number of drawbacks Accordingly, the problem of developing more sophisticated microflow cytometers based on electrical impedance, optical detection and image analysis methods has received significant attention in the literature. This review describes some of the major advances made in the microfluidic cytometry field over the past ten years. The review focuses specifically on recent proposals for enhanced microfluidic focusing techniques and detection/analysis methods, respectively. Overall, the review provides a useful insight into the microflow cytometer technology field for both new and existing users.
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