Bladder cancer is a common malignancy of the urinary tract, which generally develops in the epithelial lining of the urinary bladder. The specific course of treatment depends on the stage of bladder cancer; however, therapeutic strategies typically involve intravesical drug delivery to reduce toxicity and increase therapeutic effects. Recently, metallic, polymeric, lipid, and protein nanoparticles have been introduced to aid in the treatment of bladder cancer. Nanoparticles are also commonly used as pharmaceutical carriers to improve interactions between drugs and the urothelium. In this review, we classify the characteristics of bladder cancer and discuss the types of nanoparticles used in various treatment modalities. Finallywe summarize the potential applications and benefits of various nanoparticles in intravesical therapy.
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