Aim: Clozapine-associated fever is common but the specific cytokine changes and treatment durations that may cause fever remain unknown. We investigated the association between inflammatory cytokine changes and clozapine-induced fever in patients who were treated with clozapine. Methods: Forty-three patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, diagnosed by using the Chinese Version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, were treated with clozapine for the first time (first-time use group, n = 22) or for more than 6 months (long-term use group, n = 21). The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, tympanic temperature, and levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (INF-γ), interleukin-2 (IL-2), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were determined at baseline and weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6. A multiple linear regression with generalized estimating equation methods was used to analyze the association between the changes in the cytokine levels and clozapine-induced fever in the different groups. Results: The IL-6 level changes were significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.04). In the first-time use group, the fever rate was increased (47.1%) compared with the long-term use group (5.6%, P = 0.005). Moreover, in these patients, the TNF-α, INF-γ, IL-2, and IL-6 levels were significantly (P < 0.001) different from patients who did not develop a fever. An interaction effect with the different treatment duration groups and fever development was only significant for IL-6 (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Patients who were treated with clozapine for the first time have an increased rate of developing a fever, and IL-6 might have a specific role in the interaction effect between treatment duration and fever development.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Clinical Neurology
- Psychiatry and Mental health