The efficacy and safety of short-course intravenous (i.v.) antimicrobial therapy for bloodstream infections is unknown. Therefore, a retrospective 8-year cohort study including 1431 hospitalised adults was conducted to compare the outcomes of patients receiving short-course (5–10 days) and long-course (11–16 days) i.v. antibiotic therapy for community-onset bacteraemia. Of 1010 patients who received short-course therapy, 726 were matched with 363 patients in the long-course group through propensity score matching at a ratio of 1:2 based on independent predictors of 30-day mortality identified in the multivariate regression model. Following appropriate matching, similarities between the two groups in the proportion of baseline characteristics (age, sex, major co-morbidities, co-morbidity severity, bacteraemia severity at onset and major bacteraemia sources) and 30-day crude mortality rate after bacteraemia onset were observed. Notably, clinical outcomes within 30 days after the end of i.v. therapy, in terms of proportions of post-treatment overall infections (2.2% vs. 6.1%; P = 0.001), infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant pathogens (ARPs) (1.7% vs. 4.4%; P = 0.007), and thereby post-treatment crude mortality (1.4% vs. 3.6%; P = 0.009), were lower in the short-course group. In conclusion, for adults with community-onset uncomplicated bacteraemia, short-course (5–10 days) i.v. antibiotic treatment did not result in an increased risk of mortality but instead decreased the odds of overall and ARP infections after the treatment course.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Microbiology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases
- Pharmacology (medical)