Dynamic mechanical models of the double limb support phase of human gait were developed for both two-dimensional (sagittal plane) and three-dimensional motion. A “foot" model with a curved plantar surface was also developed such that the model foot motion was kinematically equivalent to that of a walking subject. This foot model was incorporated into the planar model for double limb support. The dynamic formulations were based on Kane's method and were implemented symbolically using MACSYMA. The development of the formulations for the constrained systems, application of these formulations to the study of normal gait, the sensitivity of the simulation to the frequency content of the input data, the sensitivity of limb displacements to changes in joint moments and the application of a nonlinear feedback controller to correct for perturbations in limb trajectories were investigated.
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