This study investigates the medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) statistically at the low-latitude equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) region in the northern hemisphere. We apply the automatic detection algorithm including the three-dimensional fast Fourier transform (3-D FFT) and support vector machine (SVM) on total electron content (TEC) observations, derived from a network of ground-based global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers in Taiwan (14.5° N geomagnetic latitude; 32.5° inclination), to identify MSTID from other waves or irregularity features. The obtained results are analyzed statistically to examine the behavior of low-latitude MSTIDs. Statistical results indicate the following characteristics. First, the southward (equatorward) MSTIDs are observed almost every day during 0800–2100 LT in Spring and Winter. At midnight, southward MSTIDs are more discernible in Summer and majority of them are propagating from Japan to Taiwan. Second, northward (poleward) MSTIDs are more frequently detected during 1200–2100 LT in Spring and Summer with the secondary peak of occurrence between day of year (DOY) 100–140 during 0000–0300 LT. The characteristics of the MSTIDs are interpreted with additional observations from radio occultation (RO) soundings of FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC as well as modeled atmospheric waves from the high-resolution Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) suggesting that the nighttime MSTIDs in Summer is likely connected to the atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs). [Figure not available: see fulltext.].
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