About 30–50% of oral cancer patients require mandibulectomy and autologous fibula recon-struction. Autograft is the gold standard choice because of its histocompatibility; however, it requires additional surgery from the patient and with possible complications such as loss of fibula leading to calf weakening in the future. Allograft and xenograft are alternatives but are susceptible to immune response. Currently, no personalized bone xenografts are available in the market for large fascial bone defects. In addition, a large-sized complex shape bone graft cannot be produced directly from the raw material. We propose the use of porcine bones with 3D CAD/CAM carving to reconstruct a personalized, wide range and complex-shaped bone. We anticipate that patients can restore their native facial appearance after reconstruction surgery. Supercritical CO2 (SCCO2) technology was employed to remove the cells, fat and non-collagenous materials while maintaining a native collagen scaffold as a biomedical device for bone defects. We successfully developed 3D CAD/CAM carved bone matrices, followed by SCCO2 decellularization of those large-sized bones. A lock-and-key puzzle design was employed to fulfil a wide range of large and complex-shaped maxillofacial defects. To conclude, the 3D CAD/CAM carved bone matrices with lock and key puzzle Lego design were completely decellularized by SCCO2 extraction technology with intact natural collagen scaffold. In addition, the processed bone matrices were tested to show excellent cytocompatibility and mechanical stiffness. Thus, we can overcome the limitation of large size and complex shapes of xenograft availability. In addition, the 3D CAD/CAM carving process can provide personalized tailor-designed decellularized bone grafts for the native appearance for maxillofacial reconstruction surgery for oral cancer patients and trauma patients.
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