Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have received great attention due to their outstanding performance and their low processing costs. To boost their performance, one approach is to reinforce the built-in electric field (BEF) to promote oriented carrier transport. The BEF is maximized by reinforcing the work function difference between cathode and anode (Δμ1) and increasing the work function difference between lower and upper surfaces of perovskite film (Δμ2) via introduction of electric dipole molecules, denoted as PTFCN and CF3BACl. The synergistic reinforcement of BEF improves charge transport and collection, and realizes markedly high photovoltaic performances with the best power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 21.5%, a growth of 15.6% as compared to the control device, which is higher than the superposition of improvements achieved by either raising Δμ1 or Δμ2. Importantly, dual-functional CF3BACl not only supplies dipole effect for tuning the surface potential of perovskite but offers hydrophobic trifluoride group toward the long-term stable unencapsulated PSCs retaining more than 95% PCE after storing 2000 h under ambient conditions. This work demonstrates the synergistic effect of Δμ1 and Δμ2, providing an effective strategy for the further development of PSC in terms of photovoltaic conversion and stability.
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