Background: Urban bus drivers work under conditions that are among the most demanding, stressful, and unhealthy with higher rates of mortality and morbidity as well as absenteeism and turnover. Methods: Drawing on the job demand-resource model, this study investigates the impacts of job characteristics on emotional exhaustion and the effects of emotional exhaustion on job outcomes (including job satisfaction, life satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention) in the context of bus drivers. Results: Using self-reported survey data collected from a sample of 320 Taiwanese urban bus drivers, results reveal that role overload and work-family conflict (as job demand factors) positively relate to emotional exhaustion, and organizational support (as a job resource factor) is negatively associated with emotional exhaustion. Emotional exhaustion has negative effects on both job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Job satisfaction positively leads to life satisfaction, whereas organizational commitment negatively relates to turnover intention. Conclusion: This study concludes that role overload and work-family conflict as two stressors related to job demands and organizational support as the job resource factor to affect emotional exhaustion which further influence well-being in bus driver context. The moderating effects of both extraversion and neuroticism on the relationship between job demands and emotional exhaustion are evident.
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