TY - JOUR

T1 - Temperature gradient-aware thermal simulator for three-dimensional integrated circuits

AU - Lu, Liang Ying

AU - Chiou, Lih Yih

N1 - Funding Information:
This work was supported for research grants (MOST 102-2221-E-006-280-MY3 and MOST 104-2220-E-006-015) by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), Taiwan. This work was also supported for the valuable technique in 3D-DSP ICs by ITRI. Therefore, the authors thank the MOST and ITRI.
Publisher Copyright:
© The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

PY - 2017/9/1

Y1 - 2017/9/1

N2 - Nowadays, thermal simulators of integrated circuits (ICs) at architectural level tend to neglect thermal effects in temperature-dependent factors (such as leakage power and thermal conductivity) and a heat dissipation mechanism for thermal radiation at the early stages of IC design. Hence, the analysis results of thermal simulators may be not sufficient to reflect the physical-thermal interactive effects of ICs. This study presents a temperature gradient-aware thermal simulator for three-dimensional ICs (called 3D-TarGA) at the architectural level. The temperature gradient-aware thermal analysis of 3D-TarGA considers the thermal effects in leakage power, thermal conductivity, thermal radiation, and thermal convection to reflect the physical-thermal interactive effects of ICs at the early stages of IC design. Experimental results show that the maximum absolute error for the temperature of IC with ignoring the thermal effects using 3D-TarGA is 1.62°C, in contrast to the published thermal simulator, HotSpot. Moreover, the maximum absolute difference for the temperature of IC by considering the thermal effects is 2.7°C, as compared with that when ignoring the thermal effects for 3D-TarGA.

AB - Nowadays, thermal simulators of integrated circuits (ICs) at architectural level tend to neglect thermal effects in temperature-dependent factors (such as leakage power and thermal conductivity) and a heat dissipation mechanism for thermal radiation at the early stages of IC design. Hence, the analysis results of thermal simulators may be not sufficient to reflect the physical-thermal interactive effects of ICs. This study presents a temperature gradient-aware thermal simulator for three-dimensional ICs (called 3D-TarGA) at the architectural level. The temperature gradient-aware thermal analysis of 3D-TarGA considers the thermal effects in leakage power, thermal conductivity, thermal radiation, and thermal convection to reflect the physical-thermal interactive effects of ICs at the early stages of IC design. Experimental results show that the maximum absolute error for the temperature of IC with ignoring the thermal effects using 3D-TarGA is 1.62°C, in contrast to the published thermal simulator, HotSpot. Moreover, the maximum absolute difference for the temperature of IC by considering the thermal effects is 2.7°C, as compared with that when ignoring the thermal effects for 3D-TarGA.

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U2 - 10.1049/iet-cdt.2016.0149

DO - 10.1049/iet-cdt.2016.0149

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85028649740

VL - 11

SP - 190

EP - 196

JO - IET Computers and Digital Techniques

JF - IET Computers and Digital Techniques

SN - 1751-8601

IS - 5

ER -