This study extends the leisure constraints literature and empirically tests the constraints–effects– mitigation model within the context of spectator sports. The moderating effects of satisfaction with marketing strategies on the constraints–negotiation relationship and the motivation–negotiation relationship were also examined. Data (n= 997) were collected from spectators attending Chinese Professional Baseball League (CPBL) games during the regular seasons in 2014 and 2015. Results showed that 1) negotiation works to independently influence participation; 2) the relationship between motivation and participation is partially mediated by negotiation strategies; 3) the relationship between motivation and negotiation is moderated by satisfaction with marketing strategies; and 4) constraints have no significant influence on participation and negotiation. The results advance our understanding of the factors influencing consumers’ leisure participation and the decision-making mechanism. This could help professional sport teams develop more effective and targeted marketing strategies. The findings may also help enrich sport spectators’ consumption of leisure experiences.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes