The purpose of this study was to assess the epidemiology of malaria in Taiwan between 2002 and 2010. We analyzed data reported as part of surveillance programs run by the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (Taiwan CDC). Malaria cases were diagnosed by blood films, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests. The risk of re-establishment of malaria transmission in Taiwan was assessed. A total of 193 malaria cases were included in our analysis. All of the cases were associated with importation. One hundred and fifty-eight cases (82%) were diagnosed within 13 days from the start of symptoms/signs, and 44% of these cases were acquired in Africa and 42% were acquired in Asia. Plasmodium falciparum was responsible for the majority (49%) of these cases. Travel to an endemic area was associated with the acquisition of malaria. The malaria importation rate was 2.77 per 1,000,000 travelers (range, 1.35-5.74). The reproductive number under control (Rc) was 0. No endemic transmission of malaria in Taiwan was identified. This study suggests that maintaining a vigilant surveillance system, environmental management, vector-control efforts, and case management are needed to prevent outbreaks and sustain the eradication of malaria in Taiwan.
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