Background: Osteoporotic fracture is a common public-health problem in ageing societies. Although postfracture usage of osteoporosis medications may reduce mortality, recent results have been inconsistent. We aimed to examine associations between osteoporosis medication and mortality in older adults, particularly oldest-old adults (>=85 years old). Methods: Participants aged 65 years old and older newly diagnosed with both osteoporosis and hip or vertebral fractures within 2009-2017 were recruited from the records of 23,455,164 people in Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Osteoporosis medication exposure was calculated after the first-time ambulatory visit with newly diagnosed osteoporosis. Mortality and its specific causes were ascertained from Cause of Death Data. Patients were followed until death or censored at the end of 2018. Results: A total of 87,935 participants aged 65 years old and over (73.4% female), with a mean 4.13 follow-up years, were included. Taking medication was associated with significantly lower risk of mortality (hip fracture HR 0.75, vertebral fracture HR 0.74), even in the oldest-old adults (hip fracture HR 0.76, vertebral fracture HR 0.72), where a longer duration of taking osteoporosis medication was associated with lower all-cause mortality. Specific causes of mortality were also significantly lower for participants taking osteoporosis medication (cancer HR 0.84 in hip fracture, 0.75 in vertebral fracture; cardiovascular disease HR 0.85 in hip fracture, 0.91 in vertebral fracture). Conclusions: Osteoporosis medication after hip or vertebral fracture may reduce mortality risk in older adults, notably in oldest-old adults. Encouraging the use of post-fracture osteoporosis medication in healthcare policies is warranted.
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