Immunization is recommended for people with diabetes mellitus (DM), but little information is available on their seropositivity rates. To determine the impact of glucose tolerance state on seropositivity rate after hepatitis B vaccination, we included 7645 adult participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2016 who reported three doses of hepatitis B vaccine and were seropositive for anti-hepatitis B surface antibody (≥ 12.0 mIU/mL), after exclusion of those positive for anti-hepatitis B core antibody and/or hepatitis B surface antigen. We classified the states of glucose tolerance as normal glucose tolerance (NGT, 61.68%), abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT, 26.02%), or DM (13.30%). We observed a stepwise decline in hepatitis B seropositivity rate from NGT (53.64%) to AGT (45.52%) to DM (28.84%) (P < 0.0001). We confirmed these results after standardization for age and BMI (P < 0.0001 for all subgroup analyses) and in subgroup analyses by gender and racial/ethnic group. Dysregulated glucose metabolism is associated with a decreased seropositivity rate after hepatitis B vaccination. Our observations suggest that regular follow-up screening for anti-hepatitis B surface antibody, with additional booster vaccination as necessary, is especially important in patients with DM. Whether a similar phenomenon exits for other vaccines, especially COVID-19, remains to be investigated.
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