The roofs of most of the buildings in Taiwan are exposed to direct (overhead) solar radiation during the summer season because it is located near the Tropic of Cancer. The estimated yearly solar heat gain received from a roof is 2.78 times greater than that gained from a south-side wall (the second highest in terms of solar heat gain). Since most elementary schools in Taiwan are not equipped with air conditioners, the classrooms, especially those located on the upper floors, are regularly overheated. Solving the problem of ventilation and improving the thermal environment in Taiwan elementary school classrooms is an important endeavor. CFD simulations were conducted to investigate six combinations of designs that can incorporate natural ventilation (double roofs, ĝ€?ĝ€?Covered Ridge with Sidewall Opening (CRSOs), roof ridge openings, and window layout) influence indoor thermal environments, especially during the summer season when the outdoor wind velocity is low. The results show that when a double roof, roof ridge openings, and a CRSO are implemented, both the ventilation performance and the thermal environment of the classrooms are improved, regardless of whether the windows are laid out in a staggered formation (high-low) or in a conventional window layout.
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