Background: While diabetes is considered as a risk factor for colorectal cancer, there are few studies that address the association between glycemic statuses and different colon polyps, ranging from non-neoplastic polyps to advanced adenomatous polyps. Methods: A total of 6,348 participants, consisting of 3,777 men and 2,571 women, with a mean age of 50.5 years, were included for final analysis after excluding subjects with a past history of colorectal cancer, colon polyps/polypectomy, familial adenomatous polyposis, and colorectomy, or missing data. Diabetes and pre-diabetes were defined using the 2011 American Diabetes Association criteria. Subjects were classified into four groups: polyp-free, non-neoplastic polyps, non-advanced and advanced adenomatous polyps. Results: There were significant differences in the prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes among groups with different kinds of colon polyps. In addition, significant differences were also noted in age, total cholesterol, body mass index, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, and the prevalence of male gender, hypertension, obesity, current smoking and alcohol drinking among groups. In the multinomial logistic regression analyses, diabetes was related to both non-advanced and advanced adenomatous polyps, while pre-diabetes was only related to non-advanced adenomatous polyps. In addition, age ≥65 years and male gender were associated with both non-advanced and advanced adenomatous polyps, while hypertension and current smoking were independently related to advanced and non-advanced adenomatous polyps, respectively. Conclusions: Diabetes, but not pre-diabetes, was associated with a higher risk of advanced adenomatous polyps. In addition, both diabetes and pre-diabetes were important correlates of non-advanced adenomatous polyps.
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