This study examined the relationships among student performances in questiongeneration, peer-assessment, and academic achievement in four different online peerassessment learning environments. Eight fifth-grade classes (N=253) were randomly assigned to one of four different identity revelation modes (real-name, anonymous, nickname, and self-choice) and participated in the study for six weeks. An online learning system that allows students to contribute to and benefit from the process of question-generation and peerassessment was adopted. Data analysis revealed significant relationships among the three examined variables. Additionally, the identity revelation modes moderated the predictive power of online question-generation performance on academic achievement. Specifically, the predictive power in the self-choice mode was the greatest. Finally, self-choice identity mode strengthened the relationships between peer-assessment and question-generation performances. The empirical significance of the study and suggestions for learning system development and instructional implementation are provided.