Urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS) manifests as pelvic pain with frequent urination and has a 10% prevalence rate without effective therapy. Nanoceria (cerium oxide nanoparticles [CNPs]) were synthesized in this study to achieve potential long-term pain relief, using a commonly used UCPPS mouse model with cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis. Transcriptome sequencing analysis revealed that serpin family B member 2 (SerpinB2) was the most upregulated marker in mouse bladder, and SerpinB2 was downregulated with CNP pretreatment. The transcriptome sequencing analysis results agreed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis results for the expression of related mRNAs and proteins. Analysis of Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets revealed that SerpinB2 was a differentially upregulated gene in human UCPPS. In vitro SerpinB2 knockdown downregulated proinflammatory chemokine expression (chemokine receptor CXCR3 and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10) upon treatment with 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide. In conclusion, CNP pretreatment may prevent the development of UCPPS, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and SerpinB2 downregulation may modulate the immune response in UCPPS.
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