This study reports an integrated microfluidic chip manufactured by micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) technology used for the automatic extraction of mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA). Mitochondria is a key organelle associated with aging, degenerative diseases, and cancers. An alteration in mtDNA may be induced by oxidative stress in tissues and cells and may be used as an indicator for diseases associated with aging. Hence, there is a great need to establish a quantitative and qualitative measurement method to evaluate dysfunction in mitochondria. Traditional processes for the measurement of alterations in mtDNA involves micro-cloning, direct sequencing, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) processing, and microarray detection; all of which are timeconsuming and labor-intensive processes. Especially, the extraction of mtDNA from cell samples that require precision and a lengthy process. This microfluidic chip integrates micropumps, a micromixer and a micro temperature module in a three-dimensional structure to automate the entire process of the extraction of the mtDNA. Compared with its conventional counterparts, the advantages of this microchip include less sample and reagent consumption, higher extraction performance, a shorter analysis time, and automation. The developed microsystem is promising for the extraction of mtDNA and can be applied in further mitochondrial studies.
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