Objective: The aims of this retrospective study were to investigate whether the quantification of ovarian stromal blood flow and/or leptin concentration are predictive of in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes in women after laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy for large endometriomas. Methods: Twenty-two women undergoing IVF after laparoscopic surgery for ovarian endometriomas (> 6 cm) comprised the study group. Twenty-six women with tubal factor infertility constituted the control group. Ovarian stromal blood flow was evaluated by three-dimensional (3D) power Doppler ultrasound imaging using virtual organ computer-aided analysis (VOCAL™). Serum and follicular fluid (FF) leptin concentrations were quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Results: There were significantly decreased ovarian stromal blood flow parameters (including vascularization index, flow index (FI), and vascularization flow index) in the endometriosis group without an evident difference in total ovarian volume on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin. The value of FF leptin demonstrated a negative correlation with ovarian stromal FI in the control group, but there was a loss of this effect in the endometriosis group. Conclusions: Quantification of ovarian stromal blood flow by 3D power Doppler ultrasound in women with endometriosis may provide an important prognostic indicator in those undergoing IVF.
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