Microfluidics has attracted considerable attention since its early development in the 1980s and has experienced rapid growth in the past three decades due to advantages associated with miniaturization, integration and automation. Urine analysis is a common, fast and inexpensive clinical diagnostic tool in health care. In this article, we will be reviewing recent works starting from 2005 to the present for urine analysis using microfluidic devices or systems and to provide in-depth commentary about these techniques. Moreover, commercial strips that are often treated as chips and their readers for urine analysis will also be briefly discussed. We start with an introduction to the physiological significance of various components or measurement standards in urine analysis, followed by a brief introduction to enabling microfluidic technologies. Then, microfluidic devices or systems for sample pretreatments and for sensing urinary macromolecules, micromolecules, as well as multiplexed analysis are reviewed, in this sequence. Moreover, a microfluidic chip for urinary proteome profiling is also discussed, followed by a section discussing commercial products. Finally, the authors' perspectives on microfluidic-based urine analysis are provided. These advancements in microfluidic techniques for urine analysis may improve current routine clinical practices, particularly for point-of-care (POC) applications.
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