Variable power splitting ratio 2×2 MMI couplers using multi-mode waveguide holograms are analyzed. Theoretical analysis shows that variable splitting ratios can be obtained with surface relief holograms on MMI couplers with fixed dimensions. Devices with paired-imaging lengths are designed on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. Beam propagation simulations are used to verify a matrix theory analysis and to investigate proposed device performance. Fabrication tolerance of the proposed device is also analyzed.
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