TY - JOUR

T1 - Variances and variance estimators of the improved ratio estimators under adaptive cluster sampling

AU - Lin, Feng Min

AU - Chao, Chang Tai

PY - 2014/6

Y1 - 2014/6

N2 - Although not design-unbiased, the ratio estimator is recognized as more efficient when a certain degree of correlation exists between the variable of primary interest and the auxiliary variable. Meanwhile, the Rao-Blackwell method is another commonly used procedure to improve estimation efficiency. Various improved ratio estimators under adaptive cluster sampling (ACS) that make use of the auxiliary information together with the Rao-Blackwellized univariate estimators have been proposed in past research studies. In this article, the variances and the associated variance estimators of these improved ratio estimators are proposed for a thorough framework of statistical inference under ACS. Performance of the proposed variance estimators is evaluated in terms of the absolute relative percentage bias and the empirical mean-squared error. As expected, results show that both the absolute relative percentage bias and the empirical mean-squared error decrease as the initial sample size increases for all the variance estimators. To evaluate the confidence intervals based on these variance estimators and the finite-population Central Limit Theorem, the coverage rate and the interval width are used. These confidence intervals suffer a disadvantage similar to that of the conventional ratio estimator. Hence, alternative confidence intervals based on a certain type of adjusted variance estimators are constructed and assessed in this article.

AB - Although not design-unbiased, the ratio estimator is recognized as more efficient when a certain degree of correlation exists between the variable of primary interest and the auxiliary variable. Meanwhile, the Rao-Blackwell method is another commonly used procedure to improve estimation efficiency. Various improved ratio estimators under adaptive cluster sampling (ACS) that make use of the auxiliary information together with the Rao-Blackwellized univariate estimators have been proposed in past research studies. In this article, the variances and the associated variance estimators of these improved ratio estimators are proposed for a thorough framework of statistical inference under ACS. Performance of the proposed variance estimators is evaluated in terms of the absolute relative percentage bias and the empirical mean-squared error. As expected, results show that both the absolute relative percentage bias and the empirical mean-squared error decrease as the initial sample size increases for all the variance estimators. To evaluate the confidence intervals based on these variance estimators and the finite-population Central Limit Theorem, the coverage rate and the interval width are used. These confidence intervals suffer a disadvantage similar to that of the conventional ratio estimator. Hence, alternative confidence intervals based on a certain type of adjusted variance estimators are constructed and assessed in this article.

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U2 - 10.1007/s10651-013-0255-2

DO - 10.1007/s10651-013-0255-2

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84900547029

VL - 21

SP - 285

EP - 311

JO - Environmental and Ecological Statistics

JF - Environmental and Ecological Statistics

SN - 1352-8505

IS - 2

ER -