Alcoholism, as it has been hypothesized, is caused by a highly heterogeneous genetic load. Since 1960, many reports have used the bio-psycho-social approach to subtype alcoholism; however, no subtypes have been genetically validated. We reviewed and compared the major single-gene, multiple-gene, and gene-to-gene interaction studies on alcoholism published during the past quarter-century, including many recent studies that have made contributions to the subtyping of alcoholism. Four subtypes of alcoholism have been reported:  pure alcoholism,  anxiety/depression alcoholism,  antisocial alcoholism, and  mixed alcoholism. Most of the important studies focused on three genes: DRD2, MAOA, and ALDH2. Therefore, our review focuses on these three genes.
|頁（從 - 到）||36-40|
|期刊||Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry|
|出版狀態||Published - 2014 1月 3|
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