In application scenarios such as Internet of Things, a large number of energy receivers (ERs) exist and line-of-sight (LOS) propagation could be common. Considering this, we investigate wireless energy transfer (WET) in extra-large massive MIMO Rician channels. We derive analytical expressions of the received net energy for different schemes, including 1) training-based WET, where the ER sends beacon signal for channel training and the energy transmitter (ET) uses the channel estimate for energy beamforming, 2) LOS beamforming, where the ET transmits to the LOS direction of the ER, and 3) energy harvesting, which allows an ER to harvest the training energy from the other ERs. We derive a path loss threshold for switching between training and LOS beamforming-based WET. We further show that the WET scheme selection of one ER is not affected by the other ERs, and the energy harvested from training is minimal in practice. With these insights, we propose an algorithm for the multi-ER scenario, which minimizes the power consumption by iteratively updating the WET scheme selection and power allocation for all ERs. Simulations show that the proposed algorithm achieves near-optimal performance as compared to exhaustive searching, while with much lower implementation complexity.
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